Phosphorus melting point

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Phosphorus melting point

Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P 4 O 10 with its common name derived from its empirical formulaP 2 O 5. This white crystalline solid is the anhydride of phosphoric acid. It is a powerful desiccant and dehydrating agent. Phosphorus pentoxide crystallizes in at least four forms or polymorphs.

The most familiar one, a metastable form, [1] shown in the figure, comprises molecules of P 4 O Weak van der Waals forces hold these molecules together in a hexagonal lattice However, in spite of the high symmetry of the molecules, the crystal packing is not a close packing [2]. The structure of the P 4 O 10 cage is reminiscent of adamantane with T d symmetry point group. The latter lacks terminal oxo groups. Its density is 2.

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This form can be made by condensing the vapor of phosphorus pentoxide rapidly, the result is an extremely hygroscopic solid. The macromolecular form can be made by heating the compound in a sealed tube for several hours, and maintaining the melt at a high temperature before cooling the melt to the solid.

The stable form is a higher density phase, also orthorhombic, the so-called O' form. It consists of a 3-dimensional framework, density 3.

P 4 O 10 is prepared by burning tetraphosphorus with sufficient supply of oxygen:. For most of the 20th century, phosphorus pentoxide was used to provide a supply of concentrated pure phosphoric acid. In the thermal process, the phosphorus pentoxide obtained by burning white phosphorus was dissolved in dilute phosphoric acid to produce concentrated acid. Phosphorus pentoxide is a potent dehydrating agent as indicated by the exothermic nature of its hydrolysis:. However, its utility for drying is limited somewhat by its tendency to form a protective viscous coating that inhibits further dehydration by unspent material.

A granular form of P 4 O 10 is used in desiccators. Consistent with its strong desiccating power, P 4 O 10 is used in organic synthesis for dehydration. The most important application is for the conversion of primary amides into nitriles : [8]. The indicated coproduct P 4 O 9 OH 2 is an idealized formula for undefined products resulting from the hydration of P 4 O Alternatively, when combined with a carboxylic acidthe result is the corresponding anhydride : [9]. The desiccating power of P 4 O 10 is strong enough to convert many mineral acids to their anhydrides.

Between the commercially important P 4 O 6 and P 4 O 10phosphorus oxides are known with intermediate structures. Phosphorus pentoxide itself is not flammable. Just like sulfur trioxideit reacts vigorously with water and water-containing substances like wood or cotton, liberates much heat and may even cause fire due to the highly exothermic nature of such reactions.Phosphorus is a reactive nonmetal with element symbol P and atomic number It is one of the essential elements in the human body and is widely encountered in products such as fertilizers, pesticides, and detergents.

Learn more about this important element. Atomic Number : Atomic Weight : Electron Configuration : [Ne] 3s 2 3p 3. Word Origin: Greek: phosphoros: light-bearing, also, the ancient name given the planet Venus before sunrise. Properties: The melting point of phosphorus white is There are four allotropic forms of phosphorus: two forms of white or yellowred, and black or violet. White phosphorus exhibits a and b modifications, with a transition temperature between the two forms at Ordinary phosphorus is a waxy white solid.

It is colorless and transparent in its pure form.

Phosphorus Facts (Atomic Number 15 or Element Symbol P)

Phosphorus is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide. Phosphorus burns spontaneously in air to its pentoxide.

White phosphorus should be stored under water and handled with forceps. It causes severe burns when in contact with skin. Unlike white phosphorus, red phosphorus does not glow or burn in air, although it still requires careful handling. Uses: Red phosphorus, which is relatively stable, is used to make safety matchestracer bullets, incendiary devices, pesticides, pyrotechnic devices, and many other products. There is a high demand for phosphates for use as fertilizers. Phosphates are also used to make certain glasses e.

Bone ash calcium phosphate is used to make chinaware and to make monocalcium phosphate for baking powder. Phosphorus is used to make steels and phosphor bronze and is added to other alloys.

There are many uses for organic phosphorus compounds. Biological Activity: Phosphorus is an essential element in plant and animal cytoplasm. In humans, it is essential for proper skeletal and nervous system formation and function. Phosphate deficiency is called hypophosphatemia. It is characterized by low soluble phosphate levels in serum. Symptoms include disruption of muscle and blood function due to insufficient ATP. An excess of phosphorus, in contrast, leads to organ and soft tissue calcification.

One symptom is diarrhea. Good dietary sources of phosphorus include meat, milk, and soy beans. Melting Point K : With a standard atomic weight of circa 1. Helium is a chemical element with atomic number 2 which means there are 2 protons and 2 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Helium is He.

Phosphorus – Melting Point – Boiling Point

It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element.

Why does H2SO4 have high Boiling Point - Part 82-P block-chemistry-Unit 7I class 12

Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal naturally found in mineral rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust. The commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis.

Significant concentrations of boron occur on the Earth in compounds known as the borate minerals.

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There are over different borate minerals, but the most common are: borax, kernite, ulexite etc. Natural boron consists primarily of two stable isotopes, 11B In nuclear industry boron is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to the high neutron cross-section of isotope 10B.

It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. Liquid nitrogen made by distilling liquid air boils at Oxygen is a colourless, odourless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.

By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. Fluorine is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions.

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As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine.

Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air. Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Magnesium is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column group 2, or alkaline earth metals of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

Aluminium is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group. Silicon is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor.

As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.

Sulfur is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature.

Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature.Red Phosphorus Follow Atomistry. Preparation of Red Phosphorus The production of this form can hardly escape observation, since it is present in the residue from the combustion of white phosphorus in the air. When liquid phosphorus is heated in a closed vessel or in a non-oxidising atmosphere, such as one of carbon dioxide, the liquid gradually turns red and is then converted into a red solid.

Red phosphorus was first prepared in this way by Schrotter inand its chief properties were then investigated.

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The red form is chiefly amorphous, and of vitreous appearance and fracture. On prolonged heating it gradually turns violet and exhibits double refraction. The transformation is greatly accelerated, and takes place at lower temperatures, in the presence of small quantities of iodine, and also of selenium.

When white phosphorus is treated with liquid ammonia it is converted into red phosphorus with simultaneous formation of amide and nitride. The red phosphorus prepared by moderate heating may be ground up with a solution of sodium hydroxide as in the technical preparation and may also be extracted with carbon disulphide until the extract is free from white phosphorus. The resulting preparation is considered to be the purest red phosphorus. Density of Red Phosphorus There is considerable variation in the values given by different investigators.

A preparation which would answer most closely to the description of "pure" red phosphorus and prepared as described above has a density which varies only within the comparatively narrow limits of 2. The density of ordinary red phosphorus may be taken then as 2. Cohen and Olie, to whom these results are due, regard red phosphorus as a solid solution of the white in the violet form. Vapour Pressure of Red Phosphorus The vapour pressures of red phosphorus are much lower than those of liquid phosphorus or of solid white phosphorus at all temperatures within the experimental range.

The latter are therefore unstable forms, or are monotropic with respect to red phosphorus and equally of course to the violet form. The pressures of red phosphorus are not in equilibrium, but fall slowly as the solid changes into the more stable "pyromorphic" violet form. Red Phosphorus.See Standard state and enthalpy of formation, Gibbs free energy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for thermodynamic data for the same compounds.

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phosphorus melting point

Sponsored Links. Tag Search en: inorganic salt melting boiling point water solubility density liquid. Privacy We don't collect information from our users. Citation This page can be cited as Engineering ToolBox, Modify access date. Scientific Online Calculator. Make Shortcut to Home Screen?Phosphorus exhibits allotropy allotropy [Gr. A chemical element is said to exhibit allotropy when it occurs in two or more forms in the same physical state; the forms are called allotropes.

Click the link for more information. White phosphorus is an extremely poisonous, yellow to white, waxy, solid substance, nearly insoluble in water but very soluble in carbon disulfide. When exposed to air it ignites spontaneously, burning to form white fumes of phosphorus pentoxide, P 2 O 5. Because of its toxicity and pyrophoric nature, phosphorus is stored underwater. Contact with the skin may cause burns. White phosphorus is phosphorescent i. This form appears as dull, reddish-brown cubic crystals or amorphous powder.

Its specific gravity is 2. The red form is less dangerous than the white form, but should be handled with caution. It is insoluble in carbon disulfide and most other solvents. Another form of phosphorus is black phosphorus, a crystalline electrically conductive material similar to graphite in appearance. It was first prepared by P. Because of its chemical activity phosphorus does not occur uncombined in nature but is widely distributed in many minerals.

A major source is apatite apatitemineral, a phosphate of calcium containing chlorine or fluorine, or both, that is transparent to opaque in shades of green, brown, yellow, white, red, and purple. Apatite is a minor constituent in igneous and metamorphic rocks. White phosphorus is prepared commercially from phosphate rock in an electric furnace or blast furnace. The principal use of phosphorus is in compounds; for this reason, most of the phosphorus produced in furnaces is burned to make phosphorus pentoxide, a white powdery substance.

phosphorus melting point

While the pentoxide is used as a drying agent and chemical reagent, it is chiefly converted to phosphoric acid phosphoric acid, any one of three chemical compounds made up of phosphorus, oxygen, and hydrogen see acids and bases. The most common, orthophosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4is usually simply called phosphoric acid.

Another important source of phosphoric acid is from phosphate rocks by treatment with sulfuric acid; this is the so-called wet-acid process. Phosphorus is present in plants and animals. There is over 1 lb grams of phosphorus in the human body.

It is a component of adenosine triphosphate adenosine triphosphate ATPorganic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups.Find freezing point of different substance like freezing point of water, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, iron, zinc, helium, silver, gold, mercury, lead, iodine, platinum and many more.

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phosphorus melting point

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